Core Data with CloudKit: Syncing Local Database to iCloud Private Database

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In this article, we will explore the most common scenario in Core Data with CloudKit applications—synchronizing the local database with the iCloud private database. We will unfold this topic on several levels:

  • Direct support for Core Data with CloudKit in new projects
  • Considerations for creating syncable Model
  • Adding Host in CloudKit support to existing Core Data projects
  • Selective data synchronization

The development environment used in this article is Xcode 12.5. For the concept of a private database, refer to Core Data with CloudKit: The Basics. To practically follow the contents of this article, you need an Apple Developer Program account.

Quick Guide

To enable Core Data with CloudKit in an application, just follow these steps:

  1. Use NSPersistentCloudKitContainer
  2. Add CloudKit support in the Signing & Capabilities of the Project Target
  3. Create or specify a CloudKit container for the project
  4. Add background support in the Signing & Capabilities of the Project Target
  5. Configure NSPersistentStoreDescription and viewContext
  6. Check if the Data Model meets synchronization requirements

Direct Support for Core Data with CloudKit in New Projects

In recent years, Apple has continuously improved the Core Data template in Xcode. Using the built-in template to create a new project with support for Core Data with CloudKit is the most convenient way to start.

Creating a New Xcode Project

Create a new project, check Use Core Data and Host in CloudKit (earlier versions as Use CloudKit) in the project settings, and set the development team (Team).


After setting the save location, Xcode will generate project documentation with Core Data with CloudKit support using the preset template.

Xcode may remind you of errors in the new project code. If it’s bothersome, just build the project to cancel the error prompt (generate NSManagedObject Subclass).

Next, we operate step by step according to the Quick Guide.

Setting up PersistentCloudKitContainer

Persistence.swift is the Core Data Stack created by the official template. Since Host in CloudKit was chosen during project creation, the template code has already used NSPersistentCloudKitContianer instead of NSPersistentContianer, so no modifications are needed.

let container: NSPersistentCloudKitContainer

Enabling CloudKit

Click the corresponding Target in the project and choose Signing & Capabilities. Click +Capability and find icloud to add CloudKit support.



Check CloudKit. Click +, and enter the CloudKit container name. Xcode will automatically add iCloud. before your CloudKit container name. The name of the container usually adopts the reverse domain name method and does not need to be consistent with the project or BundleID. If the development team is not configured, you cannot create a container.


After adding CloudKit support, Xcode automatically adds Push Notifications functionality, which we discussed in the previous article.

Enabling Background Notifications

Continue clicking +Capability, search for background and add it, check Remote notifications.


This feature allows your application to respond to silent notifications pushed when cloud data content changes.

Configuring NSPersistentStoreDescription and viewContext

Check the current .xcdatamodeld file in the project. There’s only one default configuration Default in CONFIGURATIONS. Clicking on it shows that Used with CloudKit has been checked.


If the developer has not customized `

Configurationin theData Model Editor, and if Used with CloudKitis checked,Core Datawill use the selectedCloudkit containerto setcloudKitContainerOptions. Therefore, in the current Persistence.swiftcode, we do not need to make any additional settings forNSPersistentStoreDescription(we will introduce how to setNSPersistentStoreDescription` in later chapters).

Configure the context in Persistence.swift as follows:

container.loadPersistentStores(completionHandler: { (storeDescription, error) in
       if let error = error as NSError? {
                fatalError("Unresolved error \(error), \(error.userInfo)")
// Add the following code
container.viewContext.automaticallyMergesChangesFromParent = true
container.viewContext.mergePolicy = NSMergeByPropertyObjectTrumpMergePolicy
do {
      try container.viewContext.setQueryGenerationFrom(.current)
} catch {
     fatalError("Failed to pin viewContext to the current generation:\(error)")

container.viewContext.automaticallyMergesChangesFromParent = true allows the view context to automatically merge data synced (imported) from the server. Views using @FetchRequest or NSFetchedResultsController can reflect data changes promptly in the UI.

container.viewContext.mergePolicy = NSMergeByPropertyObjectTrumpMergePolicy sets the merge conflict strategy. If this property is not set, Core Data will default to using NSErrorMergePolicy as the conflict resolution strategy (do not handle any conflicts, directly report an error), which will cause iCloud data to not merge correctly into the local database.

Core Data has four preset merge conflict strategies:

  • NSMergeByPropertyStoreTrumpMergePolicy

    Compare by property, if both persistent and in-memory data change and conflict, persistent data wins

  • NSMergeByPropertyObjectTrumpMergePolicy

    Compare by property, if both persistent and in-memory data change and conflict, in-memory data wins

  • NSOverwriteMergePolicy

    In-memory data always wins

  • NSRollbackMergePolicy

    Persistent data always wins

For scenarios like Core Data with CloudKit, NSMergeByPropertyObjectTrumpMergePolicy is usually chosen.

setQueryGenerationFrom(.current) is something that only recently appeared in Apple’s documentation and examples. Its purpose is to avoid instability that might occur due to inconsistent data changes made by the application during data import. Although I have hardly encountered this situation in my more than two years of use, I still recommend everyone to add context snapshot locking in the code to improve stability.

Until Xcode 13 beta4, Apple still has not added context settings in the preset Core Data with CloudKit template, which makes importing data with the original template behave differently from expectations, not very friendly for beginners.

Checking if Data Model Meets Synchronization Requirements

The Data Model in the template project is very simple, with only one Entity and a single Attribute, and does not require adjustments for now. The synchronization rules applicable to Data Model will be detailed in the next chapter.


Modifying ContentView.swift

Reminder: The ContentView.swift generated by the template is incomplete and needs modifications to display correctly.

    var body: some View {
        NavigationView { // Adding NavigationView
            List {
                ForEach(items) { item in
                    Text("Item at \(item.timestamp!, formatter: itemFormatter)")
                .onDelete(perform: deleteItems)
            .toolbar {
                HStack { // Adding HStack
                    Button(action: addItem) {
                        Label("Add Item", systemImage: "plus")

After modification, the Toolbar buttons can be displayed correctly.

Thus, we have completed a project supporting Core Data with CloudKit.


Set up and log into the same iCloud account on either a simulator or a real device, as only the same account can access the same iCloud private database.

The animation below shows the effect of running on a real device (screen mirrored via Airplay) and a simulator.


The video is edited, and the synchronization time is usually about 15-20 seconds.

Operations from the simulator (adding, deleting) are usually reflected on the real device within about 15-20 seconds; however, operations from the real device require switching the simulator to the background and then back to the foreground to reflect changes in the simulator (since the simulator does not support silent notification responses). If testing between two simulators, similar operations need to be performed on both ends.

Apple’s documentation describes the synchronization + distribution time as not exceeding 1 minute, and in actual use, it’s usually around 10-30 seconds. It supports batch data updates, so there’s no need to worry about the efficiency of large data updates.

When data changes, a lot of debugging information will be generated in the console. Future articles will cover more about debugging.

Considerations for Creating Syncable Models

To perfectly transfer records between Core Data and CloudKit databases, it’s best to have a certain understanding of both data structure types. For specifics, please refer to Core Data with CloudKit (Part 1) - The Basics.

CloudKit Schema does not support all features and configurations of Core Data Model. Therefore, when designing a syncable Core Data project, please be aware of the following limitations and ensure you have created a compatible data model.


  • CloudKit Schema does not support Core Data’s unique constraints (Unique constraints)

Core Data’s Unique constraints require support from SQLite, and since CloudKit itself is not a relational database, it’s unsurprising it doesn’t support this.




  • Attributes that are non-optional and without default values are not allowed. Allowed: Optional, with default value, Optional + with default value


The above image shows attributes that are non-Optional and without a Default Value, which is an incompatible form and will cause Xcode to report an error.

  • Does not support Undefined type image-20210808073123665


  • All relationships must be set as optional (Optional)
  • All relationships must have an inverse (Inverse) relationship
  • Does not support Deny delete rule
  • Does not support Ordered relationship

CloudKit also has a type of object similar to Core Data’s relationship type—CKReference. However, this object can only support up to 750 records and cannot meet the needs of most Core Data application scenarios. `

CloudKitconvertsCore Datarelationships into correspondingRecord Name(UUID string form) one by one. This leads toCloudKit possibly not saving relationship changes atomically (atomically`), hence the stricter restrictions on defining relationships.

In everyday use of Core Data, most relationship definitions still meet the above requirements.


  • An Entity must not establish a relationship with entities in other Configurations

I find this limitation in the official documentation somewhat puzzling, as developers typically do not establish relationships between entities in two different Configurations, even without network synchronization. If a relationship is needed, they usually opt to create Fetched Properties.


When CloudKit synchronization is enabled, if the Model does not meet the synchronization compatibility conditions, Xcode will report an error and remind the developer. When changing an existing project to support Core Data with CloudKit, some modifications to the code may be necessary.

Adding Host in CloudKit Support to Existing Core Data Projects

With the foundation of the template project, upgrading a Core Data project to support Core Data with CloudKit is quite easy:

  • Replace NSPersistentContainer with NSPersistentCloudKitContainer
  • Add CloudKit and background capabilities and add a CloudKit container
  • Configure the context

Two points still need reminding:

CloudKit Container Authentication Failure

When adding a CloudKit container, sometimes it may fail to authenticate, especially when adding an already created container.

CoreData: error: CoreData+CloudKit: -[NSCloudKitMirroringDelegate recoverFromPartialError:forStore:inMonitor:]block_invoke(1943): <NSCloudKitMirroringDelegate: 0x282430000>: Found unknown error as part of a partial failure: <CKError 0x28112d500: "Permission Failure" (10/2007); server message = "Invalid bundle ID for container"; uuid = ; container ID = "iCloud.Appname">

The solution is to log in to the developer account -> Certificates, Identifiers & Profiles -> Identifiers App IDs, select the corresponding BundleID, configure iCloud, click Edit, and reconfigure the container.


Using a Custom NSPersistentStoreDescription

Some developers prefer to customize NSPersistentStoreDescription (even if there’s only one Configuration). In this case, you need to explicitly set cloudKitContainerOptions for NSPersistentStoreDescription, for example:

let cloudStoreDescription = NSPersistentStoreDescription(url: cloudStoreLocation)
cloudStoreDescription.configuration = "Cloud"
cloudStoreDescription.cloudKitContainerOptions = NSPersistentCloudKitContainerOptions(containerIdentifier: "your.containerID")

Even if you do not set the Configuration in the Model Editor as Used with CloudKit, the network synchronization function is still effective. The biggest benefit of checking Used with CloudKit is that Xcode will check if your Model is compatible with CloudKit.

Selective Data Synchronization

In practical applications, there are scenarios where we want to selectively synchronize data. By defining multiple Configurations in the Data Model Editor, we can control data synchronization.

Configuring Configuration is very simple, just drag the Entity into it.

Placing Different Entities in Different Configurations

Suppose the following scenario: we have an EntityCatch, used for local data caching, and its data does not need to be synced to iCloud.

Apple’s official documentation and other materials discussing Configuration mostly focus on scenarios like the one above.

We create two Configurations:

  • local— Catch
  • cloud— other Entities that need synchronization

Use code similar to the following:

let cloudURL = FileManager.default.urls(for: .documentDirectory, in: .userDomainMask).first!
let localURL = FileManager.default.urls(for:.documentDirectory, in:.userDomainMask).first!

let cloudDesc = NSPersistentStoreDescription(url: cloudURL)
cloudDesc.cloudKitContainerOptions = NSPersistentCloudKitContainerOptions(containerIdentifier: "your.cloudKit.container")
cloudDesc.configuration = "cloud"

let localDesc = NSPersistentStoreDescription(url: localURL)
localDesc.configuration = "local"

container.persistentStoreDescriptions = [cloudDesc,localDesc]

Only data of Entities in the Configuration cloud will be synced to iCloud.

We cannot create relationships between Entities across Configurations. If necessary, Fetched Properties can be used to achieve a limited approximation.

Placing the Same Entity in Different Configurations

If you want to control the synchronization

of data for the same Entity (partial synchronization), the following solution can be used.

Scenario: Suppose there is an EntityMovie, and for whatever reason, you only want to sync part of its data.

  • Add an Attribute to Movielocal:Bool (local data is true, sync data is false)

  • Create two Configurationscloud, local, and add Movie to both Configurations

  • Use the same code as above, adding two Descriptions in NSPersistentCloudKitContainer

    When fetching Movie, NSPersistentCoordinator will automatically merge and handle Movie records from both Stores. However, when writing a Movie instance, the coordinator will only write the instance to the Description that includes Movie first, so pay special attention to the order of addition.

    For example, container.persistentStoreDescriptions = [cloudDesc, localDesc], a new Movie in container.viewContext will be written to cloud.sqlite

  • Create an NSPersistentContainer named localContainer, containing only localDesc (multi-container solution)

  • Enable Persistent History Tracking on localDesc

  • Use localContainer to create contexts to write Movie instances (instances will only be saved locally and not synced over the network)

  • Handle NSPersistentStoreRemoteChange notifications to merge data written from localContainer into the container’s viewContext

This solution requires the use of Persistent History Tracking. More information can be found in my other article Using Persistent History Tracking in CoreData.


In this article, we discussed how to synchronize a local database with the iCloud private database.

In the next article, let’s explore how to use the CloudKit dashboard. Let’s understand Core Data with CloudKit from another perspective.

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